artificial selection in humans0
Conclusion. Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together. A suspected reason associated with the late realisation of success in selective breeding programs in aquaculture was the education of the concerned people – researchers, advisory personnel and fish farmers. Previously, cattle were first and foremost kept for pulling ploughs as oxen, but he crossed long-horned heifers and a Westmoreland bull to eventually create the Dishley Longhorn. , Selective breeding of both plants and animals has been practiced since early prehistory; key species such as wheat, rice, and dogs have been significantly different from their wild ancestors for millennia, and maize, which required especially large changes from teosinte, its wild form, was selectively bred in Mesoamerica. Rome. Selective plant breeding is also used in research to produce transgenic animals that breed "true" (i.e., are homozygous) for artificially inserted or deleted genes. Aquaculture species are reared for particular traits such as growth rate, survival rate, meat quality, resistance to diseases, age at sexual maturation, fecundity, shell traits like shell size, shell colour, etc. After selectively breeding the fish for four generations, spawning dates were 13–15 days earlier. FAO. , We are profoundly ignorant of the causes producing slight and unimportant variations; and we are immediately made conscious of this by reflecting on the differences in the breeds of our domesticated animals in different countries,—more especially in the less civilized countries where there has been but little artificial selection.. , Over the years ‘Rossmore' oysters have shown to develop lower prevalence of B. ostreae infection and percentage mortality. ), Proceedings ofWorld Symposium on Selection, Hybridization, and Genetic Engineering in Aquaculture, Bordeaux 27–30 May 1986, vol. Unlike terrestrial livestock, the potential benefits of selective breeding in aquaculture were not realized until recently.  Sydney-rock oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) showed a 4% increase after one generation and a 15% increase after two generations. The traits, for which the selection was done included growth rate, feed consumption, protein retention, energy retention, and feed conversion efficiency. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. The oysters showed higher growth and survival rates and low susceptibility to the infections. Selection methods in plant breeding based on mode of reproduction, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/breed, "Selection experiments as a tool in evolutionary and comparative physiology: insights into complex traits—an introduction to the symposium", "Maternal, dominance and additive genetic effects in Nile tilapia; influence on growth, fillet yield and body size traits", 10.1577/1548-8659(1955)85[93:dortbs]2.0.co;2, 10.1577/1548-8659(1977)106<621:tgosfg>2.0.co;2, "Two-way selection for growth rate in the common carp (, 10.1890/0012-9658(2003)084[1650:asaptf]2.0.co;2. If there is additive genetic variance for the selected trait, it will respond to the selection, that is, the trait will evolve. A single-generation method of breeding is not as accurate or direct. Evolution: Natural selection and human selection article, Biology is brought to you with support from the Amgen Foundation. , Selection for growth in Penaeid shrimps yielded successful results. Selective breeding programs show that O. edulis susceptibility to the infection differs across oyster strains in Europe.  A 7% increase in growth was recorded per generation for rainbow trout by Kause et al. Selective breeding can be unintentional, e.g., resulting from the process of human cultivation; and it may also produce unintended – desirable or undesirable – results. Animal breeding begins with breeding stock, a group of animals used for the purpose of planned breeding. A selective breeding program at Cork harbour uses broodstock from 3– to 4-year-old survivors and is further controlled until a viable percentage reaches market size. Artificial reproduction was not achieved because of the difficulties in hatching or feeding some farmed species such as eel and yellowtail farming. After one generation, a 21% increase was observed in growth and 18.4% increase in survival to TSV. (2005). Therefore, when purchasing initial breeding stock, the breeder seeks a group of birds that will most closely fit the purpose intended. These sheep were exported widely, including to Australia and North America, and have contributed to numerous modern breeds, despite the fact that they fell quickly out of favor as market preferences in meat and textiles changed. Darwin used the term "artificial selection" twice in the 1859 first edition of his work On the Origin of Species, in Chapter IV: Natural Selection, and in Chapter VI: Difficulties on Theory: Slow though the process of selection may be, if feeble man can do much by his powers of artificial selection, I can see no limit to the amount of change, to the beauty and infinite complexity of the co-adaptations between all organic beings, one with another and with their physical conditions of life, which may be effected in the long course of time by nature's power of selection. Documentation of the genetic changes was considered important as they help in fine tuning further selection schemes.. In: Tiews, K.  Artificial selection is the process by which humans choose individual organisms with certain phenotypic trait values for breeding.  Applying such genetic improvement program to aquaculture species will increase productivity to meet the increasing demands of growing populations. Bonamia ostrea is a protistan parasite that causes catastrophic losses (nearly 98%) in European flat oyster Ostrea edulis L. This protistan parasite is endemic to three oyster-regions in Europe. (1977) showed that growth gains by 30% could be achieved by selectively breeding rainbow trout for three generations. Studies in evolutionary physiology, behavioral genetics, and other areas of organismal biology have also made use of deliberate selective breeding, though longer generation times and greater difficulty in breeding can make these projects challenging in such vertebrates as house mice.. At the end of the experiment, artificially selected C. virginica showed a 34–48% higher survival rate. C.I. Artificial selection, also known as selective breeding, is a nice way of saying that humans have guided the evolution of other animals until they become mutants.  The Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) causes mortalities of 70% or more in shrimps. However, single-trait breeding, breeding for only one trait over all others, can be problematic. (Ed. La sélection d'une carpe résistant à l'hiver. Ragone Calvo et al. The results showed a 30–40% to 77.4% improvement of cold tolerance but did not provide any data for growth rate. An increase in growth rate was observed in the second generation in Vietnam. , Selective breeding programs for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) include improvement in growth, shape and resistance to disease. By 1786, that weight had more than doubled to 840 pounds (381 kg). 447–454. Artificial selection operates in the same way, but instead of Mother Nature being in control, humans are the ones who are initiated the evolution process. Domesticated animals are known as breeds, normally bred by a professional breeder, while domesticated plants are known as varieties, cultigens, cultivars, or breeds. High-yielding varieties have been particularly important in agriculture. 1. This higher response to selection of aquatic farmed species can be attributed to the following: Selective breeding in aquaculture provide remarkable economic benefits to the industry, the primary one being that it reduces production costs due to faster turnover rates. Plant breeding has been used for thousands of years, and began with the domestication of wild plants into uniform and predictable agricultural cultigens. Selection for live weight of Pacific oysters showed improvements ranging from 0.4% to 25.6% compared to the wild stock. They achieved dual resistance to the disease in four generations of selective breeding. Evolution: Natural selection and human selection article. A study carried out by Culloty et al. , Control of the reproduction cycle was one of the main reasons as it is a requisite for selective breeding programs. AP.BIO: EVO‑1 (EU), EVO‑1.F (LO), … A comparative study on the performance of select Atlantic salmon with wild fish was conducted by AKVAFORSK Genetics Centre in Norway. Tang et al. Selective breeding was established as a scientific practice by Robert Bakewell during the British Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century. Also, because of the necessity of selective breeding experiments to require maintaining the organisms tested in a lab or greenhouse, it is impractical to use this breeding method on many organisms. Gjedrem (1979) showed that selection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) led to an increase in body weight by 30% per generation.
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